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# SAT Short Passage Paired

In: Critical Reading part of the test.
Other common name is Reading Comprehension

### Passage 1

Classical physics the physics of the macroscopic world (our world which we can see, touch and hear). It is very appealing to the purist in that there are no uncertainties in measurement of physical quantities. When we set up an apparatus to measure something the apparatus does not interfere with the measurement. For example if we want to figure out how fast something is traveling, we can also find out exactly where it is at the time of measurement of its speed. There is certainty in classical physics, the “exact” physics. Thus when a bridge is built, we know exactly what stress the bridge may withstand. When a car is constructed we know what specifications the engine must have to have the car do what we want.

### Passage 2

Modern physics or physics of the sub- microscopic world (the world of electrons, protons and neutrons) is very perplexing since there seems to be an apparent violation of cause and effect. There exists only a probability and not certainty in measurement of important physical quantities because the measurement device affects the measurement. For example, if we know exactly what position an electron is, we cannot determine its speed. Thus the more we know the value of one physical quantity, the less certain we are of a corresponding physical quantity. To paraphrase Albert Einstein, “the universe does not play dice with nature.” Ironically, modern physics really controls and determines the outcome of the physics of the macroscopic physics (since the macroscopic world is really made up of constituents in the sub- microscopic realm). Thus modern physics is the foundation of all physics since it contains the basic and fundamental elements used to create all physics.
Question

It can be assumed that Albert Einstein believed that

1. only classical physics existed in nature.
2. there was certainty in all aspects of physics theories
3. classical physics violates cause and effect
4. speed and position are not the fundamental characteristics of particles
5. when a new car is constructed, in order for it to be most efficient a new physics must be employed.

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